Neither side, however, risked the utmost, the termination of the Concordat. und Pius XII. After short, largely secret negotiations, the Lateran Treaty between the Vatican and the Kingdom of Italy was concluded as early as 1929. From National Book Award finalist David I. Kertzer comes the gripping story of Pope Pius XI’s secret relations with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini. Afterwards the situation eased somewhat, but there were repeated conflicts between Pius XI and Mussolini, who despised each other deeply. . One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. —Rolf Hochhuth, opening stage directions of The Deputy. The Pope reacted in 1931 with a sharp encyclical, Quadragesimo Anno: On the Reconstruction of the Social Order. The compelling story of Pope Pius XI's secret relations with Benito Mussolini. Pope Pius XI (Latin: Pius PP. Mussolini leaving. The "Duce" tried from the beginning to get on the Church’s good side. A Journal of the McGrath Institute for Church Life, by Jörg Ernesti The book examined documentary evidence from the Vatican archives, arguing that Pope Pius XI played a significant role in supporting the rise of Fascism and Benito Mussolini in Italy, but not of Nazism in Germany. It was a discourse that Mussolini … [6], The biography won the 2015 Pulitzer Prize in Drama, Letter and Music category of Biography or Autobiography. In a spiritual sense, we are all Semites.” In Mussolini's circle, there was fear of a public condemnation of racial politics by the Church leader. The Pope and Mussolini NPR coverage of The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe by David I. Kertzer. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe Das päpstliche Lehramt auf dem Prüfstand der Geschichte: Franz Hürth SJ als „Holy Ghostwriter“ von Pius XI. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism, furthermore, is not only meticulously documented, it is very well written. The calculus of the "Duce" worked out: In foreign policy the agreement increased its prestige, and in the country itself Catholics identified themselves with the system to a degree hardly thought possible. Kertzer shows how the relationship between Pope Pius XI and Benito Mussolini played into the rise of Fascism and anti-Semitism. XI; Italian: Pio XI; 31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was Pope from 6 February 1922, and sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929 until his death on 10 February 1939. Both had explosive tempers. [4], The book was lauded by many authors including Joseph J. Ellis, who wrote, "Kertzer has an eye for a story, an ear for the right word, and an instinct for human tragedy. und Pius XII. . Again and again the Pope expressed his uneasiness: “It is impossible that Christians follow anti-Semitism . The German playwright Rolf Hochhuth started a worldwide avalanche when he published the play Der Stellvertreter in 1963. Jörg Ernesti is Professor of Church History at the University of Augsburg in Germany. He felt he had to warn him about the pact with “Signor Hitler, the greatest enemy of Christ and the Church in the modern age.”. [3], It is the story of Pope Pius XI’s relations with Italian dictator Benito Mussolini, based on archival material from both. 45,00€ 3: Requiem: XI. The Church made advances on several fronts in the 1920s, improvin… Both sacrificed principle to achieve their goals. Mussolini, a failed assistant teacher, anti-clerical journalist and ex-socialist, had effectively seized power in 1922. "The New York Review of Books states, "Revelatory . In most respects, they could not have been more different. : Franz Hrth SJ als "Holy Ghostwriter" von Pius XI. Pius XI became pope, the leader of the Roman Catholic Church, on February 6, 1922, after the death of Benedict XV. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe Das päpstliche Lehramt auf dem Prüfstand der Geschichte: Franz Hürth SJ als „Holy Ghostwriter“ von Pius XI. Featured Image: Author unknown, Achille Ratti, later Pius XI, as a cardinal and apostolic nuncio in Poland around 1919; Source: Wikimedia Commons, PD-Old-70. Quia Pius es Der erste Stellvertreter: Pius XI. Both Pope Pius XI and Mussolini came to power in Rome in 1922. By November 8, 1938 at the latest he must have witnessed with his own eyes the acts of terror committted against the Jewish citizens of Germany. But with the treaty no peace returned to the relationship between Church and state. Although Mussolini and Pope Pius XI were an odd couple, they healed this breach. Pius XI leaving Castel Gandolfo. und Pius XII. They shared a distrust of democracy and a visceral hatred of Communism. Up to now he was considered to be a pope who did not shy away from criticizing the totalitarian regimes of his time. In most respects, they could not have been more different. One was scholarly and devout, the other a violent bully. His followers brutalized priests and Catholic laypeople who opposed fascism. In most respects, they could not have been more different. For the sake of narrative style, accuracy in detail also suffers. In the following four years the political system was brought into line. recognize me, the e-book will very proclaim you new concern to read. The pontificate of Pius XI coincided with the early aftermath of the First World War. One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. The characterizations of the protagonists of his drama are vivid. Afterwards the situation eased somewhat, but there were repeated conflicts between Pius XI and Mussolini, who despised each other deeply. It is hard to say how a man with so likable a face could, in good conscience, reconcile himself to the continuance of the Concordat between the Curia and the Government of the Third Reich, even when Catholic Jews were deported. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe is a 2014 Pulitzer Prize winner biography of Pope Pius XI about his relations with Benito Mussolini and rise of Fascism in Europe by David Kertzer. A previous version of this review appeared in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, which we thank for the permission to translate and reprint and reprint this piece. : Franz Hrth SJ als "Holy Ghostwriter" von Pius XI. Its leader, Don Luigi Sturzo, had to go into exile. Other contemporaries, such as the later Pope Paul VI, incidentally, remember more likeable traits. und Pius XII. These fears were not unfounded: In fact, he commissioned an encyclical condemning racism and anti-Semitism. A ground-breaking work, based on seven years of research in the Vatican and Fascist archives by US National Book Award-finalist David Kertzer, it will forever change our understanding of the Vatican's role in … In order to reach an agreement with the regime, Pius XI—who was in office from 1922-1939—withdrew his protective hand from the Catholic People's Party. Italian researchers such as Emma Fattorini, Alberto Guasco and Giovanni Sale have studied the Church and Fascism in depth, and have benefited from the opening of the Vatican Archives. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of twentieth-century history. At that point, however, Mussolini changed course on the question of religion. The pontiff did not publicly protest against the nationwide collection of wedding rings that were melted-down in support of the conquest of Abyssinia, which was contrary to international law. CU Pope Pius XI. Cardinal Robert Sarah on the consequences of the dictatorship of noise. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of 20th-century history. Suggestive assertions replace repeatedly documented certainty. June 09, 2020, The Nuncio resided in Berlin throughout the Hitler era. "[5] Historian Paul Gottfried criticized the book for being overly critical of the Church. In the election of 1921, the fascists only elected 35 deputies in an Italian parliament of 352 members. Two leaders came to power in 1922 in Rome, Achille Ratti was elevated to the papacy as Pius XI, and Benito Mussolini was appointed Italian prime minister. [1] The book examined documentary evidence from the Vatican archives, arguing that Pope Pius XI played a significant role in supporting the rise of Fascism and Benito Mussolini in Italy, but not of Nazism in Germany. [7], Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography, "The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe", "2015 Pulitzer Winners: Charleston, S.C., Paper Wins Public Service Prize; New York Times Wins 3", "How a Pope Helped Mussolini Rise to Power And tried to stop him before it was too late", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Pope_and_Mussolini&oldid=984567042, Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography-winning works, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 October 2020, at 20:06. June 08, 2020 | Kertzer begins in the year 1918. The play was almost immediately translated into English in 1964 as The Deputy. Robert Cardinal Sarah, Copyright © 2020 [2], The Pope and Mussolini won the 2015 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography. How relations between them developed until the pope’s 1939 demise occupies this original history, which rests on Kertzer’s thorough research of available Vatican archives and other sources. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe, Quadragesimo Anno: On the Reconstruction of the Social Order, The Materialistic Civilization That Now Prevails in the West Has Consequences. Pius XI was often enough confronted with Church representatives who were too accommodating to the regime, even at his own Curia. The Pope and Mussolini tells the story of two men who came to power in 1922, and together changed the course of twentieth-century history. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe . He had been born on May 31, 1857 is Desio, Italy. Both men were headstrong adversaries who cooperated as needed. : Franz Hrth SJ als "Holy Ghostwriter" von Pius XI. Requiem: XI. … Both bristled at the charge of being the patsy of the other. For non-historians, the book certainly offers a surprisingly new view of the period described; experts, on the other hand, are unlikely to find anything new. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe Das päpstliche Lehramt auf dem Prüfstand der Geschichte: Franz Hürth SJ als „Holy Ghostwriter“ von Pius XI. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe. Quia Pius es Der erste Stellvertreter: Pius XI. The Pope and Mussolini: The Secret History of Pius XI and the Rise of Fascism in Europe - Ebook written by David I. Kertzer. Yet Pius XI and “Il Duce” had many things in common. und Pius XII. Requiem: XI. One was scholarly and devout, the other thuggish and profane. The king of the media is assigned the role of an extra. Both demanded unquestioned obedience from their subordinates, whose knees literally quaked in fear of provoking their wrath. . He is described as quick-tempered, stubborn and imperious, but ultimately as weak in assertiveness. The Italian racial laws (1938) finally led to a breaking test of relations. That text dealt harshly with Nazism and Fascism and was written in solitude. Mussolini is portrayed as a monomaniacal loner with a debauched love life. University of Notre Dame, McGrath Institute for Church Life In most respects, they could not have been more different. Although Italy was on the winning side, the post-war years here were marked by social unrest and political instability. Quia Pius … These concerned above all the lay organizations organized in the Catholic Action, which were harassed by the fascist black shirts. The old European monarchies had been largely swept away and a new and precarious order formed across the continent. Pius’s pontificate soon witnessed the rise to power of Benito Mussolini, who signed (February 11, 1929) with him the Lateran Treaty that allowed the existence of … Kertzer clearly draws the picture of the dubious Jesuit Tacchi Venturi, who served as an intermediary between the Pope and the "Duce". Yet Pius XI and “Il Duce” had many things in common. ‎ PULITZER PRIZE WINNER • NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE From National Book Award finalist David I. Kertzer comes the gripping story of Pope Pius XI’s secret relations with Italian dictator Benito Muss… By January 1923 Mussolini … . Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Just invest little mature to log on this on-line pronouncement the pope and mussolini Page 3/9. Pope Pius XII, who had been highly respected until then, became a man who was accused of keeping silent in the face of the Holocaust. His death alone prevented its publication. 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